EPP Faculty :: Jay Apt

Jay Apt

The Tepper School of Business
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Posner Hall 254B
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Phone: (412) 268-3003

Professor of Technology, Tepper School of Business / Engineering and Public Policy; Director, Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

Electricity generation, storage, transmission, and distribution; electricity markets; education of power systems engineers, scientists, and business professionals; technology commercialization; national competitiveness policy; space science and engineering policy; remote sensing and effects of global climate change; applications of robotics.


  • Ph.D in Experimental Atomic Physics, Massachusets Institute of Technology, 1976
  • A.B. in Physics(Magna Cum Laude), Harvard, 1971

Positions Held

  • Professor, Tepper School of Business, Associate Research Professor, Tepper School of Business, Executive Director, Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 2003-2010
  • Affiliated Professor in Engineering & Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 2010-
  • Distinguished Service Professor in Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 2000-2010
  • Managing Director and Chief Technology Officer, iNetworks, LLC Venture Capital , 2000-2003
  • Director, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1997-2000
  • Astronaut (Four Space Shuttle missions. Two missions involved partnerships with Japan and Russia; one involved two spacewalks), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1985-1997
  • Chief of Mission Support Branch, 1995-1996
  • Flight Controller, Mission Control center, 1982-1985
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, Science Manager of Optical Facilities, Table Mountain Observatory, Group Leader, Optical Astronomy Group, Planetary scientist in Earth and Space Sciences Division, California Institute of Technology, 1980-1982
  • Assistant Director, Division of Applied Sciences, Founding Director, Planetary Imaging computer center, Harvard University, 1978-1980
  • Staff, Center for Earth and Planetary Physics, 1976-1980
  • Post-doctoral fellow in laser spectroscopy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1976

Selected honors and awards

  1. Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2013
  2. Fellow, The Explorers Club, 2008
  3. Metcalf Award for Outstanding engineering Achievement, 2002
  4. David L. Lawrence Award of Vectors / Pittsburgh, 2000
  5. NASA Distinguished Service Medal, 1997
  6. NASA Exceptional Service Medal, 1993 and 1995
  7. Federation Aeronautique Internationale V.M. Komarov Diploma, 1991 and 1992
  8. Sergei P. Korolev Diploma, 1991
  9. De La Vaulx Medal,1998

Selected Publications

92. Hines, P., J. Dowds, T. Ryan, W. Buchanan, E. Kirby, J. Apt, and P. Jaramillo, A Review of Large-Scale Wind Integration Studies. In review at Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews.

91. Lueken, R., K. Klima, W.M. Griffin, and J. Apt, The climate and health effects of a USA switch from coal to gas. In review at Environmental Science & Technology.

90. Lueken, R., J. Moore, and J. Apt, The Social Costs and Benefits Wind Energy: Case study in the PJM Interconnection. In review at Environmental Science & Technology.

89. Lueken, R. and J. Apt. The Effects of Bulk Electricity Storage on the PJM Market. In second review at Energy Systems.

88. Hittinger, E., J. Apt, and J. Whitacre, The Effect of Variability-Mitigating Market Rules on the Operation of Wind Farms. In second review at Energy Systems.

87. Fertig, E., A.M. Heggedal, G. Doorman, and J. Apt, Optimal investment timing and capacity choice for pumped hydropower storage. In Press at Energy Systems. Published online December 27, 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s12667-013-0109-x.

86. Rose, S. and J. Apt, The Cost of Curtailing Wind Turbines for Secondary Frequency Regulation Capacity. In Press at Energy Systems. Published online August 13, 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s12667-013-0093-1.

85. Rose, S., P. Jaramillo, M. Small, and J. Apt, Quantifying the Hurricane Catastrophic Risk to Offshore Wind Power. Risk Analysis, 2013. 33(12):2126-2141.

84. Mauch, B., J. Apt, P.M.S. Carvalho and M. Small, An Effective Method for Modeling Wind Power Forecast Uncertainty. Energy Systems, 2013. 4(4): 393-417.

83. Siler-Evans, K., I.L. Azevedo, M.G. Morgan, and J. Apt, Regional Variations in the Health, Environmental, and Climate Benefits of Wind and Solar Generation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013. 110(29): 11768-11773.

82. Hoşgör, E., J. Apt, and B. Fischhoff,  Incorporating Seismic Concerns in Site Selection for Enhanced Geothermal Power Generation. The Journal of Risk Research, 2013. 16(8): 1021-1036.

81. Apt, J. and N. Secomandi, Preface to the Special Issue on Energy Modeling. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 2013. 47(2): 75.

80. Mauch, B., J. Apt, P.M.S. Carvalho and P. Jaramillo, What Day-Ahead Reserves are Needed in Electric Grids with High Levels of Wind Power?. Environmental Research Letters 8 (2013) 034013.

79. Victor, D.G., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, J. Steinbruner, and K. Ricke, The Truth about  Geoengineering. Foreign Affairs, March 27, 2013.

78. Moore, J. and J. Apt, Can Hybrid Solar-Fossil Power Plants mitigate CO2 at Lower Cost than PV or CSP? Environmental Science & Technology, 2013. 47(6): 2487-2493.

77. Katzenstein, W. and J. Apt, The Cost of Wind Power Variability. Energy Policy, 2012. 51: 233-243.

76. Lueken, C., P.M.S. Carvalho, and J. Apt, Distribution grid reconfiguration reduces power losses and helps integrate renewables. Energy Policy, 2012. 48: 260-273.

75.   Rose, S., P. Jaramillo, M. Small, I. Grossmann, and J. Apt, Reply to Powell and Cocke: On the probability of catastrophic damage to offshore wind farms from hurricanes in the US Gulf Coast. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012. 109(33): E2193-E2194.

74. Mauch, B., P.M.S. Carvalho and J. Apt, Can a Wind Farm with CAES Survive in the Day-ahead Market? Energy Policy, 2012. 48: 584-593.

73. Lueken, C., G. Cohen, and J. Apt, The Costs of Solar and Wind Power Variability for Reducing CO2 Emissions. Environmental Science & Technology, 2012. 46(17):9761-9767.

72. McClellan, J., D.W. Keith, and J. Apt, Cost Analysis of stratospheric albedo modification delivery systems. Environmental Research Letters, 2012. 7(3): 034019.

71. Fertig, E., J. Apt, P. Jaramillo, and W. Katzenstein, The effect of long-distance interconnection on wind power variability. Environmental Research Letters, 2012. 7(3): 034017.

70. Changala, D., M. Dworkin, J. Apt, and P. Jaramillo, Comparative Analysis of Conventional Oil and Gas and Wind Project Decommissioning Regulations on Federal, State, and County Lands. The Electricity Journal, 2012. 25(1): 29-45.

69. Rose, S. and J. Apt, Generating Wind Time Series as a Hybrid of Measured and Simulated Data. Wind Energy, 2012. 15(5): 699-715.

68. Rose, S., P. Jaramillo, M. Small, I. Grossmann, and J. Apt, Quantifying the Hurricane Risk to Offshore Wind Turbines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012. 109(9): 3247-3252.

67. Hittinger, E., J. Whitacre, and J. Apt, What Properties of Grid Energy Storage are Most Valuable? Journal of Power Sources, 2012. 206: 436–449.

66. Apt, J., S. Peterson, and J.F. Whitacre, Battery Vehicles Reduce CO2 Emissions. Science, 2011. 333(6024): 823.

65. Fertig, E. and J. Apt, Economics of Compressed Air Energy Storage to Integrate Wind Power: A Case Study in ERCOT. Energy Policy, 2011. 39(5): 2330–2342.

64. Apt, J., C.T. Hendrickson, and G. Morgan, Lester Lave, Visionary Economist. Environmental Science & Technology, 2011. 45(13): 5457-5458.

63. Peterson, S.B., J.F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, Net Air Emissions from Electric Vehicles: The Effect of Carbon Price and Charging Strategies. Environmental Science & Technology, 2011. 45(5): 1792-1797.

62. Gilmore, E.A., J. Apt, R. Walawalkar, P.J. Adams, and L.B. Lave, The air quality and human health effects of integrating utility-scale batteries into the New York State electricity grid. Journal of Power Sources, 2010. 195(8): 2405-2413.

61. Hittinger, E., J.F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, Compensating for Wind Variability Using Co-Located Natural Gas Generation and Energy Storage. Energy Systems, 2010. 1(4): 417-439.

60. Gresham, R.L., S.T. McCoy, J. Apt, and M.G. Morgan, Implications of Compensating Property-Owners for Geologic Sequestration of CO2. Environmental Science & Technology, 2010. 44(8): 2897-2903.

59. Peterson, S.B., J.F. Whitacre, and J. Apt, The Economics of Using PHEV Battery Packs for Grid Storage. Journal of Power Sources, 2010. 195(8): 2377-2384.

58. Peterson, S.B., J. Apt, and J.F. Whitacre, Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Degradation Resulting from Realistic Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Grid Utilization. Journal of Power Sources, 2010. 195(8): 2385-2392.

57. Katzenstein, W., E. Fertig, and J. Apt, The Variability of Interconnected Wind Plants. Energy Policy, 2010. 38(8): 4400-4410.

56. Victor, D.G., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, J. Steinbruner, and K. Ricke, The Geoengineering Option:  A Last Resort Against Global Warming? Foreign Affairs, 2009. 88(2): 64-76.

55. Hines, P., J. Apt, and S. Talukdar, Large Blackouts in North America: Historical trends and policy implications. Energy Policy, 2009. 37(12): 5249-5259.

54. Newcomer, A. and J. Apt, Near term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the US. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 43(11): 3995–4001. *Paper selected as Best Environmental Policy Paper of 2009 by Environmental Science & Technology*

53. Katzenstein, W. and J. Apt, Response to "Comment on 'Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power' ". Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 43(15): 6108-6109.

52. Katzenstein, W. and J. Apt, Air Emissions Due To Wind And Solar Power. Environmental Science & Technology, 2009. 43(2): 253-258.

51. Curtright, A. and J. Apt, The Character of Power Output from Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Systems. Progress in Photovoltaics, 2008. 16(3): 241-247.

50. Walawalkar, R., S. Blumsack, J. Apt, and S. Fernands, An Economic Welfare Analysis of Demand Response in the PJM Electricity Market. Energy Policy, 2008. 36(10): 3692-3702.

49. Newcomer, A. and J. Apt, Implications of generator siting for CO2 pipeline infrastructure. Energy Policy, 2008. 36(5): 1776-1787.

48. Apt, J., L. Lave, and S. Pattanariyankool, A National Renewable Portfolio Standard? Not Practical. Issues in Science & Technology, 2008. 25(1): 53-59.

47. Wilson, E.J., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, M. Bonner, C. Bunting, M. de Figueiredo, J. Gode, C. Jaeger, D.W. Keith, S.T. McCoy, R.S. Haszeldine, M. Pollak, D.M. Reiner, E.S. Rubin, A. Torvanger, C. Ulardic, S. Vajjhala, D. Victor, and I. Wright, Regulating the Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008. 42(8): 2718-2722.

46. Newcomer, A., S.A. Blumsack, J. Apt, L.B. Lave, and M.G. Morgan, Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008. 42(9): 3139-3144.

45. Lave, L.B., J. Apt, and S. Blumsack, Deregulation/Restructuring Part II: Where Do We Go From Here? The Electricity Journal, 2007. 20(9): 10-23.

44. Lave, L.B., J. Apt, and S. Blumsack, Deregulation/Restructuring Part I: Re-regulation Will Not Fix the Problems. The Electricity Journal, 2007. 20(8): 9-22.

43. Walawalkar, R., J. Apt, and R. Mancini, Economics of electric energy storage for energy arbitrage and regulation in New York. Energy Policy, 2007. 35(4): 2558–2568.

42. Apt, J., D.W. Keith, and M.G. Morgan, Promoting Low-Carbon Electricity Production. Issues in Science & Technology, 2007. 24(3): 37-44.

41. Patiño-Echeverri, D., B. Morel, J. Apt, and C. Chen, Should a Coal-Fired Power Plant be Retrofitted or Replaced? Environmental Science & Technology, 2007. 41(23): 7980-7986.

40. Apt, J., The Spectrum of Power from Wind Turbines. Journal of Power Sources, 2007. 169(2): 369-374.

39. Newcomer, A. and J. Apt, Storing syngas lowers the carbon price for profitable coal gasification. Environmental Science & Technology, 2007. 41(23): 7974 - 7979.

38. Strauss, B., M.G. Morgan, J. Apt, and D.D. Stancil, Cell Phones: Unsafe at Any Airspeed:  Cellphones and other electronics are more of a risk than you think. IEEE Spectrum, 2006. 43(3): 44-49.

37. Lave, L.B. and J. Apt, Planning for Natural Disasters in a Stochastic World. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 2006. 33: 117-130.

36. Apt, J. and B. Fischhoff, Power and People. The Electricity Journal, 2006. 19(9): 17-25.

35. Apt, J., L.B. Lave, and M.G. Morgan, Power Play: A More Reliable U.S. Electric System. Issues in Science & Technology, 2006. 22(4): 51-58.

34. Blumsack, S., J. Apt, and L.B. Lave, Response to Andy Ott's letter on "Lessons from the Failure of U.S. Electricity Restructuring". The Electricity Journal, 2006. 19(5): 4-6.

33. Blumsack, S., J. Apt, and L.B. Lave, Lessons from the Failure of U.S. Electricity Restructuring. The Electricity Journal, 2006. 19(2): 15-32.

32. Dobesova, K., J. Apt, and L.B. Lave, Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy? Environmental Science & Technology, 2005. 39(22): 8578-8583.

31. Blumsack, S., J. Apt, and L. Lave, A Cautionary Tale: U.S. Electricity Reform. Economic and Political Weekly (Special Issue: Power Sector Reform - International Experience), 2005. 40(50): 5279-5290.

30. Apt, J., Competition Has Not Lowered US Industrial Electricity Prices. The Electricity Journal, 2005. 18(2): 52-61.

29. Apt, J., L.B. Lave, S. Talukdar, M.G. Morgan, and M. Ilic, Electrical blackouts: A systemic problem. Issues in Science and Technology, 2004. 20(4): 55-61.

28. Ilic, M., J. Apt, P. Khosla, L.B. Lave, M.G. Morgan, and S. Talukdar, Introducing electric power into a multidisciplinary curriculum for network industries. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2004. 19(1): 9-16.

27. Lal, R., M. Griffin, J. Apt, L. Lave, and G. Morgan, Response to comments on "Managing soil carbon". Science, 2004. 305(5690).

26. Lal, R., M. Griffin, J. Apt, L. Lave, and M.G. Morgan, Ecology - Managing soil carbon. Science, 2004. 304(5669): 393.

25. Lave, L., J. Apt, and S. Blumsack, Rethinking Electricity Deregulation. The Electricity Journal, 2004. 17(8): 11-26.

24. Talukdar, S., J. Apt, M. Ilic, L. Lave, and M.G. Morgan, Cascading Failures: Survival vs. Prevention. The Electricity Journal, 2003. 16(9): 25-31.

23. Apt, J. and L.B. Lave, Electric Gridlock: A National Solution. Public Utilities Fortnightly, 2003. 141(18): 14-16.

22. Apt, J., Toward a natural history museum for the 21st Century: Measuring effectiveness - Challenges and strategies. Museum News, 1997. 76(6): 43-46.

21. Amsbury, D.L., J. Wilkinson, K. Lulla, S. Ackleson, F.R. Brumbaugh, C. Evans, M.R. Helfert, D. Helms, W. Muehlburger, R.L. Gibson, C.L. Brown, M.C. Lee, J. Apt, J. Davis, M.C. Jamison, and M. Mohri, Earth Observations during Space Shuttle Mission STS-47: Endeavor's Mission to Planet Earth. Geocarto International, 1994. 9(3): 69-80.

20. Neff, J.S., T.A. Ellis, J. Apt, and J.T. Bergstralh, Bolometric Albedos of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune. Icarus, 1985. 62(3): 425-432.

19. Cruikshank, D.P. and J. Apt, Methane on Triton - Physical State and Distribution. Icarus, 1984. 58(2): 306-311.

18. Apt, J., N.P. Carleton, and C.D. Mackay, Methane on Triton and Pluto - New CCD Spectra. Astrophysical Journal, 1983. 270(1): 342-350.

17. Nisenson, P., J. Apt, R. Goody, and C. Papaliolios, Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research. Icarus, 1983. 53(3): 465-478.

16. Apt, J. and R.B. Singer, Cloud Height Differences on Saturn. Icarus, 1982. 52(3): 503-508.

15. Diner, D.J., J. Apt, and L.S. Elson, Comparison of Ground-Based and Spacecraft Observations of the Infrared-Emission from Venus - the Nature of Thermal Contrasts. Icarus, 1982. 52(2): 301-319.

14. Apt, J., G. Bailey, and J. Breckinridge, Near-Infrared Linear-Array Spectrometer for Space Applications. Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 1982. 331: 177-181.

13. Apt, J. and J. Leung, Thermal Periodicities in the Venus Atmosphere. Icarus, 1982. 49(3): 427-437.

12. Apt, J., J.V. Martonchik, and L.R. Brown, Comparison of Band Model and Integrated Line-by-Line Synthetic Spectra for Methane in the 2.3-Mu-M Region. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, 1981. 26(5): 431-442.

11. Nisenson, P., J. Apt, R. Goody, and P. Horowitz, Radius and Limb Darkening of Titan from Speckle Imaging. Astronomical Journal, 1981. 86(11): 1690-1693.

10. Apt, J., R.A. Brown, and R. Goody, The character of the thermal emission from Venus. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1980. 85: 7934-7940.

9. Malkan, M., D.E. Kleinmann, and J. Apt, Infrared Studies of Globular-Clusters near the Galactic-Center. Astrophysical Journal, 1980. 237(2): 432-437.

8. Apt, J., R. Goody, and L. Mertz, Simple Cassegrain Scanning System for Infrared Astronomy. Applied Optics, 1980. 19(10): 1590-1592.

7. Shubert, G., C. Covey, A. Del Genio, L.S. Elson, G. Keating, A. Seiff, R.E. Young, J. Apt, C.C. Counselman, A.J. Kliore, S.S. Limaye, H.E. Revercomb, L.A. Sromovsky, V.E. Suomi, F. Taylor, R. Woo, and U. von Zahn, Structure and circulation of the Venus atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1980. 85(A13): 8007-8025.

6. Apt, J. and R. Goody, Anomalous Features in Thermal Radiance Maps of Venus. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 1979. 84(Na6): 2529-2538.

5. Apt, J. and R. Goody, Infrared Image of Venus at the Time of Pioneer Venus Probe Encounter. Science, 1979. 203(4382): 785-787.

4. Apt, J. and D.E. Pritchard, Velocity Dependence of Fine-Structure Changing Collisions of Na with Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N2 and CO2. Journal of Physics B - Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics, 1979. 12(1): 83-98.

3. Goody, R. and J. Apt, Observations of Sodium Emission from Jupiter, Region-C. Planetary and Space Science, 1977. 25(6): 603-604.

2. Apt, J. and D.E. Pritchard, Velocity Dependence of Na+Ar and Na+Xe Fine-Structure Changing Collisions. Physical Review Letters, 1976. 37(2): 91-94.

1. Pritchard, D.E., J. Apt, and T.W. Ducas, Fine-Structure of Na 4d 2D Using High-Resolution Two-Photon Spectroscopy. Physical Review Letters, 1974. 32(12): 641-642.

Courses Taught


  • 45-977 Catastrophic Risk Analysis and Management (MBA); formerly numbered 45-858
  • 45-875 Government and Business (MBA)
  • 47-881 Seminar on Electric Power Restructuring (MBA and PhD students)
  • 47-882 Seminar on Low-Carbon Electric Power (MBA and PhD students)
  • 70-376 Energy Systems (Undergraduate Business major course)
  • 46-851 Problem Design and Verification (Undergraduate CIT optimization methods)
  • 39-405 Engineering Design: The Creation of Products and Processes (undergraduate CIT)

Students supervised

  • Adam Newcomer, 2008 (now at Exelon Corporation)
  • Rahul Walawalkar, 2008 (now at Customized Energy Solutions)
  • Warren Katzenstein, 2010 (now at DNV KEMA)
  • Shira Horowitz, 2012 (now at The PJM Interconnection)
  • Emily Fertig, 2013 (now at Penn State)
  • Steven Rose, 2013 (now at Carnegie Mellon University)
  • Daniel Schnitzer
  • Jared Moore
  • Roger Lueken


  • Paul Hines, 2007 (now at the University of Vermont)
  • Graham William Strauss, 2005 (now at the Naval Air Warfare Center)
  • Robert Lee Gresham, 2010 (now at SAIC Energy, Environment & Infrastructure, LLC)
  • Scott Peterson, 2012 (now at Shady Side Academy)
  • Eric Hittinger, 2012 (now at Rochester Institute of Technology)
  • Brandon Mauch, 2012 (now at the Iowa Public Utility Commission)
  • Colleen Horin Lueken, 2012 (now at DC Energy)
  • Peng Peng (co-advised with Granger Morgan)